Chronology of Euro-Zone Crisis

The sovereign debt crisis has led to a large number of reforms in the Euro-zone. In light of recent evidence of collective amnesia I decided to write a “short” chronology compiling and listing these developments, and their context, with relevant links.

2008

September 15, 2008: Lehman Brothers declares bankruptcy

which leads to increased risk and liquidity drain in the USA…

(Source)

(Source)

… and in Europe…

causing a decoupling of sovereign Debt Yields …

(Source)

That prompts the following crises and reforms:

2009

January 15, 2009: ECB lowers MRO by 50 basis points, from 2.5%, by lowering the Deposit Facility from 2% to 1% and without changing the Marginal Lending Facility, with effect from January 23.

February 25, 2009Larosiere Report on financial supervision in the EU (link) proposal upon which the ESRB and its agencies were based.

March 5, 2009: The ECB lowered the MRO by another 50 basis points, to 1.5%, by lowering the Deposit and Marginal Lending Facilities both by the same amount, with effect from March 11.

March 10, 2009Council issues budgetary warning against Greece under the Excessive Deficit Procedure.

April 2, 2009The ECB lowered the MRO by another 25 basis points, to 1.25%, by lowering the Deposit and Marginal Lending Facilities both by the same amount, with effect from April 8.

May 7, 2009:

October 4, 2009Papandreou’s PASOK wins Greek General election.

December 2, 2009Council judges that Greece has not responded adequately to its March warning.

—————————————————————————————-

2010

January 8, 2010: The European Commission, via Eurostat, publishes a Report detailing the debt and deficit statistics fraud that took place in Greece

March 25-26, 2010: The Council agrees to the eventual creation of a billateral loan mechanism backed by the IMF to assist illiquid but solvent member states and safeguard financial stability in the euro area as a whole.

April 21, 2010: EC/IMF/ECB troika mission arrives to Athens to evaluate the country’s situation.

April 26, 2010Germany accepts providing assistance to Greece if it asks for help.

May 2, 2010An Economic Adjustment Programme is agreed to support Greece on the basis of the staff report by the mission of the EC/IMF/ECB troika.

May 9, 2010EFSF is agreed by the Council. (see here for the events leading up to this).

May 10, 2010: ECB announces the creation of the Securities Market Programme.

May 11, 2010EFSM regulation is enacted.

May 14, 2010European Central Bank Decision establishing the Securities Market Programme of 14 May 2010

June 7, 2010EFSF is incorporated under Luxembourg’s law.

September 7, 2010European Council agrees on the creation of the ESRB, EBA, ESMA and EIOPA and on that the necessity of policy coordination within the framework of the SGP calls for the creation of a “European Semester.

September 29, 2010European Commission proposes it six-pack of legislative proposals for reforming European Economic Governance

October 18, 2010the Franco-German Deauville Agreement, proposes voting reform of SGP and withdrawal of Council voting rights for offending member states.

October 21, 2010Van Rompuy Report builds on the European Commission and on the Franco German Proposals to clarify the positions before the Council next meeting

October 29, 2010SGP3 Council agreement

November 21: 2010Staff level agreement is reached to provide assistance to Ireland under EFSF.

—————————————————————————————

2011

February 1, 2011Prime Minister Cowen, of Ireland, resigns.

February 4, 2011Franco-German Competitiveness pact picks up the argument for growth and monitoring made in September 7, 2010

February 25, 2011 – The Barroso-Van Rompuy report attempts to articulate the Franco-German Competitiveness Pact for the rest of the EU.

March 11, 2011Agreement on A Pact for the Euro (aka Euro+ Pact) for stronger economic policy cooperation, competitiveness and convergence. This was the result of the Franco-German Pact for Competitiveness initiative.

March 23, 2011The Portuguese Prime Minister, Socrates, resigns.

April 7, 2011:

April 17, 2011: Finish incumbent Prime Minister, Kiviniemi, loses general election passing governmental leadership from the Centre party to the Jirki Kaitainen centre right National Coalition.

May 17, 2011Portugal, and the Troika agree on an adjustment programme, under the EFSF.

June 5, 2011Passos Coelho wins Portuguese general election, replacing the centre left government with a centre-right coalition between the PSD and the PPD.

July 7, 2011: ECB rises MRO by 25 basis points, to 1.5, by rising the Deposit and Marginal Lending Facilites by the same amounts, with effect from July 13.

July 11, 2011Euro-group  signs the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism

July 21, 2011Council meeting Conclusion:

  • Proposing the attribution of a Second Adjustment Programme to Greece, worth €109 Bn
  • Supporting Greek, Portuguese and Irish adjustments by lengthening the maturity and lowering the EFSF/ESM borrowing-lending spread.
  • “Supporting” Greek debt PSI
  • Allowing EFSF/ESM to purchase sovereign debt  in secondary markets
  • Calling for a speedy conclusion to the negotiation with the EP on the reform of the SGP.

October 4, 2011: The Council,

October 6, 2011: ECB relaunches CBPP for another year.

October 11, 2011Radicova, the Prime Minister of Slovakia resigns in order to facilitate the ratification of July 21 EFSF reforms

October 21, 2011: Eurogroup meeting “conclude a secondeconomic adjustment programme for Greece, with an appropriate combination of additional newofficial financing and private sector involvement”, following the fifth review of the economic adjustment programme for Greece

October 26, 2011Eurogroup meeting “invites” a 50% PSI cut on Greek debt in exchange for supporting it with a second adjustment programme worth an extre €130 Bn.

October 31, 2011: Papandreou, the Greek Prime Minister, announces his intention to call a referendum to ratify the aggreement reached on October 26.

November 6, 2011The Greek Prime Minister Resigns

November 8, 2011Council Regulation on speeding up and clarifying the implementation of the excessive deficit procedure

November 8, 2011The Italian Prime Minister, Berlusconi, Resigns

November 9, 2011: ECB lowers MRO by 25 basis points, by lowering Deposit and Marginal Lending Facility by the same amount, with effect from November 9.

November 16, 2011: Approval of

November 20, 2011Spanish Centre Right wins election against incumbent of the centre left

November 21, 2011European Commission publishes a Green paper (proposal) on on the feasibility of introducing Stability Bonds

December 5, 2011Franco-German Agreement on:

  • Speeding ESM treaty ratification
  • Extending QMV within ESM
  •  Clarify that PSI demands, made in October, will not be extended beyond Greece.

December 8, 2011:

December 9, 2011: Council Meeting introduces the “Fiscal Compact” as agreed by €Z MSs:

  • A)Reinforced Economic Architecture with
    • I) New Fiscal Compact:
    1. Balanced budget rule =”annual structural deficit does not exceed 0.5% of nominal GDP
    2. Introduction of 1/20 debt rule, which forces every contracting party to decrease its national debt by 1/20 per year if it is above 60% of GDP
    3. “The rule will contain an automatic correction mechanism that shall be triggered in the event of deviation” – This is further elaborated as meaning that “there will be automatic consequences unless a qualified majority of euro area Member States is opposed“.
    4. to be enshrined in national Constitutional law or equivalent
    5. The specific rule will be elaborated by member states, guided by principles proposed by the EC and under ECJ jurisdiction to ensure appropriate implementation.
    6. “Steps and sanctions proposed or recommended by the Commission will be adopted unless a qualified majority of the euro areaMember States is opposed”
    7. There is no specific Euro-area convergence, but rather a country specific equilibrium to which each unstable MS is to convergence towards.
    8.  Economic Partnership Programmes to be presented submit to the Commission and the Council, by MSs under the Excessive Deficit Procedure, detailing the necessary  structural reforms to ensure an effectively durable correction of excessive deficits.
    9. National debt issuance plans shall be presented to the Council (and supposedly to the Commission) ex ante.
    10. The implementation of the Economic Partnership Programmes and of yearly budgets shall be monitored by the Commission and by the Council.
    • II)Stronger Policy Coordination and Governance:
    1. Agreement to make more use of Enhanced Cooperation
    2. Agreement to increase inclusion in the discussion of reforms, through more regular (at least twice/year) meetings

B)Strengthening the Stabilisation Tools:

  1. Rapid deployment of EFSF leverage
  2. “Common objective (…) for the ESM to enter into force in July 2012.” (1 year ahead of time)
  3. No PSI aside from Greece
  4. Introduction of liquidity guaranteeing Collective Action Clauses in sovereign debt contracts
  5. Replacing the “Mutual Agreement” clause in the ESM treaty by an “Emergency Procedure”, triggered in case the EC or the ECB consider that “an urgent decision related to financial assistance is needed when the financial and economic sustainability of the euro area is threatened”

December 22, 2011ECB auctions € 498 Bn in 3 year LTROs.

————————————————————————–

2012

January 13, 2012: S&P downgrades the sovereign debt rating of 10 Euro-Zone countries, including France, Austria, Italy and Spain:

January 30, 2012: Greek government is reported to have reached a preliminary agreement with the IIF, where private bond holders would accept a 70% haircut to the value of their bonds. The negotiations regarding the details and disbursement of the Second Adjustment programme for Greece (agreed in principle back on July 21, 2011) proceed.

February 9, 2012: ECB refuses to take part in Greek PSI because it is banned from engaging in “monetary financing”.

February 13, 2012: Greek Parliament Passes Austerity Plan demanded by Troika in exchange for 2nd bailout.

February 15, 2012:

February 16, 2012: ECB exchanges an undisclosed amount of Greek bonds for new ones

February 28, 2012: Final agreement between Greece and IIF describes PSI as reducing the total debt burden to Greece by €107 Bn, through a 53.5% haircut on the value of the principal accompanied. This is to be accompanied by a 31.5% debt exchange of their principal for longer maturities.

March 1, 2012:

March 2, 2012:

March 8, 2012: Spain unilaterally decides to increase its public deficit target for 2012 from 4.4% to 5.8% of GDP.

May 22, 2012: First Round of French Presidential Election

May 6th, 2012:

May 9, 2012:  The Spanish government takes over Bankia by converting a 4.5 billion euro state loan into equity. 

 
May 25, 2012:
June 11, 2012: Spanish Banks present plans to comply with New Financial Reforms
June 17, 2012:

June 20, 2012: ND-PASOK-DIMAR Government is annouced

June 21, 2012:

June 27, 2012: Deadline for the formation of a Greek Government. In the absence of such a political bargain, the country is expected to call another round of elections. Whether Greece will be able to receive assistance from the EFSF is still vague as that organisation can exercise some discretion over the €1bn still to be disbursed in the context of the May disbursement.

June 28-29, 2012: At the meeting of the European Council Meeting Italy and Spain are said to have held their neighbours hostage against agreements on:

  • An urgent timetable for the negotiation of the template and impletementation of a Banking Union (1st report by September 2012, Concluded negotiations by December 2012)
  • The use of the ESM for direct recapitalisation underlying the Spanish bailout
  • A loosely worded agreement in favour of the principle of semi-automatism for the implementation of secondary and primary market intervention for Italy.

July 2nd, 2012: Finland and the Netherlands break rank

  • Netherlands refuses, ex-post, the Italian demand of automaticity for Bond market intervention.
  • Finland demands that collateral be offered to EFSF/ESM, or at least to it, in exchange for bailout assistance.

July 10th, 2012: Finance Minister advises German Constitutional Court against a prolonged hearing on the legality of the ESM. Governor of Bundesbank, Weidmann, was less alarmist, saying that the EFSF could begin and ESM would pick up the tap once in place. Both urged The Court to allow ESM treaty.

June 16th, 2012: German Constitutional Court announces it will rule on the legatility of the ESM treaty by Sepetmber 12.

July 17th, 2012: Governor of the Bank of Spain admits in a testimony given before the Spanish parliament that the banking sector assistance will require the creation of a Bad Bank.

July 20th, 2012: Eurogroup formally agrees up to EUR100bn in assistance for Spain.

July 22th, 2012: German rhetoric on Greece turns negative

July24th, 2012:

July 25th, 2012:

  • Rainer Bruederle, FDP parliamentary leader and former economics minister, adds to previous day negative outlook on Greece, stating that

One can talk about a few weeks or maybe a couple of months but surely not about a delay of two years (for Greece to meet its fiscal targets. (…) There will be no majority in the Bundestag  for additional aid for Greece

  • CDU/CSU parliamentary leader Volker Kauder tells Bild that “there cannot be any further concessions [for Greece] neither on timing nor content.”
  • Michael Meister, the deputy leader of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group, echoed the comment in an interview with the daily Rheinische Post: “If more time [for Greece] means more money, I think this won’t come about.”

July 26th, 2012:

July 27th, 2012: After a teleconference, Merkel and Hollande endorse Draghi’s statements, and pledge to “do everything everything to protect the Euro”.

July 29th, 2012: Following a conference call, Merkel and Monti vow to protect euro.

July 31th, 2012: Following a meeting with Monti, the leaders repeat “that we will do everything so…that the euro zone is defended, preserved and consolidated”.

August 1st, 2012:

August 2nd, 2012:

  • Monti meets Rajoy to attempt to convince him to request assistance from the EFSF, to no avail.
  • At ECB press conference, Draghi clarifies new fiscal-monetary strategy:
      • Governments must stand ready to activate the EFSF/ESM in the bond market when exceptional financial market circumstances and risks to financial stability exist – with strict and effective conditionality in line with the established guidelines.The adherence of governments to their commitments and the fulfilment by the EFSF/ESM of their role are necessary conditions.”
      • “The Governing Council, within its mandate to maintain price stability over the medium term and in observance of its independence in determining monetary policy, may undertake outright open market operations of a size adequate to reach its objective. In this context, the concerns of private investors about seniority will be addressed. “

August16th, 2012: Merkel says the EU is “on the right track” in dealing with the debt and financial crisis. However, “a reliable framework” is necessary.

August 22nd, 2012: Rainer Bruederle reiterates the FDP’s opposition against any extensions for Greece to meet its bailout terms.

August 24th, 2012: Merkel changes German rhetoric to more positive approach, signalling commitment to Greek membership of Euro-Zone and the end to discussions of iminent exit, stating

“We want Greece to remain in the euro area,” Merkel said, referring to herself and Hollande. Germany would support Greece in this endeavor

September 6, 2012: ECB holds rates and announces OMTs. SMP comes to an end.

September 12, 2012:

September 20, 2012: Rajoy refuses Mas’ request for more budget powers to be devoled to Catalonia in order to allow it to cope with difficult economic environment.

September 25, 2012:

the ESM can take direct responsibility of problems that occur under the new supervision, but legacy assets should be under the responsibility of national authorities

September 28, 2012: Final recapitalization needs of Spanish banks reported to be worth EUR59.3bn.

October 3, 2012: Van Rompuy Draft Report for the Conclusions of upcoming October 18/19 Council Meeting are Leaked.

October 8, 2012: ESM Becomes Operational

October 19, 2012: Samaras warns European partners that that Greece will run out of cash by November 16th, thus pressuring them to disburse next bailout tranche.

October 21, 2012: Regional Elections in Galicia and the Basque Country.

November 12, 2012: IMF’s Lagarde and Eurogroup’s Juncker publically clash at a press conference following negotiations about the Greek bailout. The IMF recommends haircuts to the assets, but EZ MSs prefer maturity extension.

November 13, 2012: Greece issues bills to avoid defaulting ahead of Nov 16 deadline

November 20, 2012: Second round of negotiations about the disbursal of the latestof the Greek bailout fail. Merkel expects results next Monday.

November 25, 2012: Regional election in Catalonia.

November 26, 2012: Third deadline to disburse Greek bailout tranche: Debt buybacks? Maturity extension?

November 29, 2012: Barroso Unveils Euro Survival Plan

December 3, 2012: Greece announces terms of debt buyback.

December 4, 2012: Banking Union negotiations fail to yield agreement

December 5, 2012:

December 6, 2012: Berlusconi’s PdL withdraws support to Monti’s government

December 13, 2012EU Council agrees position on Single Supervisory Mechanism

2013

January 8th, 2013: Ireland taps 2017 EUR2.5bn

January 23rd, 2013: Portugal taps 2017 for EUR2bn

February 1st, 2013: El Pais publishes a report about a slush fund operated by the Spanish Popular Party (incumbent). The subsequent fears of a government collapse lead to a rise in government bond yields.

February 4th, 2013: The Irish parliament passes legislation to liquidate the assets of IBRC and transfer any remaining assets and liabilities to the NAMA.

February 7th, 2013: Spanish funding costs rise at auction

February 19th, 2013:Spain issues USD2bn 5yr Syndicated note.

February 20th, 2013: Spanish deficit figures come out better than expected.

February 21st, 2013: Spanish funding costs fall at auction.

February 23rd/24th, 2013: Italian elections lead to centre left majority in Chamber of Deputies and deadlock in Senate.

February 27th, 2013: Italian funding costs rise at auction, but not as much as expected.

March 13th, 2013: Ireland issues EUR5bn in 10yr syndicated bonds.

March 18th, 2013: Eurogroup announces preliminary agreement of bailout terms with Cypriot government foreseeing a EUR10bn bailout agreement from ESM/IMF to Cyprus complemented by EUR5.8bn bailin of Cypriot depositors via a one-off 6.75% tax on deposits below EUR100k and a 9.9% tax on deposits above that threshold.

March 19th, 2013:

“Deposit holders in Spain can be absolutely assured that not only is this a specific, concrete and unique situation in Cyprus, but all deposits of less than 100,000 euros are perfectly guaranteed in Cyprus, in Spain and in the whole of the European Union,”

“We are witnessing historic times. What we are witnessing is the slow death of the European Project. We are in a situation that some European governments are essentially taking actions that are telling citizens of other member states that they are not equal under the law.
We have had decisions taken by the strongest government in Europe that is spreading misery sequentially to citizens in Greece, Ireland, Portugal, in Spain, in Italy and this is not going to end the way that European governments are handling this. We need to have a decision making process where governments are asked to care for citizens in other states. (…) 
In order for the EU area to stay together they needed to form a banking union which meant, they needed to have a common credible deposit insurance guarantee for everybody in the EU area. (…) by making a mockery of that right now, the governments who pushed for this measure are sending a message that they want no part of a banking union.”

March 20th, 2013The central bank can offer emergency liquidity assistance (ELA) only to solvent banks, the ECB’s Asmussen told the German weekly. The solvency of Cypriot banks “must be viewed as non-existent …if there is no agreement soon on an aid program,” Asmussen told the German weekly Die Zeit, reiterating that the ECB can offer emergency liquidity assistance only to solvent banks.

March 21st, 2013:  “The Governing Council of the European Central Bank decided to maintain the current level of Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) until Monday, 25 March 2013. Thereafter, Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) could only be considered if an EU/IMF programme is in place that would ensure the solvency of the concerned banks.”

March 22nd, 2013: Following the failure of negotiations with Euro-Zone partners and with the Russian Government, the Cypriot parliament votes in favour of financial restructure.

March 25th, 2013:

2nd Cyprus Bailout Agreement

Eurogroup reaches an agreement with the Cypriot authorities on the key elements necessary for a future macroeconomic adjustment programme. Depositors below EUR100K remain safe, no tax is included, bondholders and depositors above EUR100K to be wiped out, Laiki resolved, bad bank and transfers to BoC.

The Governing Council of the ECB decided not to object to the request for provision of Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) by the Central Bank of Cyprus, in accordance with the prevailing rules. It will continue to monitor the situation closely“.

Dijsselbomb:

“If there is a risk in a bank, our first question should be: “Ok, what are you the bank going to do about that? What can you do to recapitalise yourself?” If the bank can’t do it, then we’ll talk to the shareholders and the bondholders. We’ll ask them to contribute in recapitalising the bank. And if necessary the uninsured deposit holders: “What can you do in order to save your own banks?

(…)

We have to bring down the tab to be picked up by the taxpayers.”

Asked about what it meant for other countries he replied

“It means: deal with it before you get in trouble. Strengthen your banks, fix your balance sheets, and realise that if a bank gets in trouble, the response will no longer automatically be we’ll come and take away your problems. We’re going to push them back. That’s the first response that we need. Push them back. You deal with them.”

While the words were never used, the market consensus was that the new approach was tantamount to arguing that depositors were no longer safe across the Euro-Zone, leading to a clarification and several criticisms.

“Cyprus is a specific case with exceptional challenges which required the bail-in measures we have agreed upon yesterday.
Macro-economic adjustment programmes are tailor-made to the situation of the country concerned and no models or templates are used.”

March 26th, 2013: A barrage of criticisms floods over Disselbloem:

March 27th, 2013: Criticism of Disselbloem continues

March 27th, 2013:

April 19th, 2013:After several inconclusive ballots, where neither Prodi, Marini nor anyone else found a majority, Giorgio Napolitano accepts to stand for reelection as Italian President in the hope that its will lead to a resolution in the Italian political crisis.

April 20th, 2013: Giorgio Napolitano is re-elected president of Italy. Bersani resigns as leader of the PD and is replaced by Matteo Renzi.

April 24th, 2013: Enrico Letta, deputy leader of the PD,  is invited by the President of Italy to form a government, after enough support was found for his leadership from PD and PdL.

May 2nd, 2013: ECB cuts MRO rate and Marginal lending facility in an (ill advised) attempt to kick start the economy after PMIs, unemployment and inflation fail to improve.

May 22nd, 2013: Ben Bernanke, Chairman of the Federal Reserve System indicates that a decrease in QE purchases may be closer than expected.

May 24th, 2013: Italy’s former PM Silvio Berlusconi has been sentenced to seven years in jail and banned from public office for having sex with an underage prostitute, and abuse of power.

June 6th, 2013:

Week Starting on June 10th, 2013: PBoC OMOs only inject CNY92bn into the financial sector by allowing the same amount of repos to mature. According to some comentators, this was not enough and reinforced the turbulence already present in the market.

June 14th, 2013: China’s Ministry of Finance sold only 9.53 billion yuan of government bills, far less than the 15 billion yuan offered.  It was the first failed Finance Ministry auction since July 2011.

June 20th, 2013: Overnight SHIBOR rockets to 13.444%.

June 21st, 2013: Overnight SHIBOR retreats to 8.492% reportedly after PBOC injects cash, as PBoC conducts U-turn on previous day’s commitment to not inject more cash.

June 24th, 2013Berlusconi is found guilty of paying for sex with an underage prostitute and of abusing his office.

July 1st, 2013: Portuguese finance minister and staunch proponent of austerity, Victor Gaspar resigns from the Portuguese government on account of a lack of coesion over the government’s austeirty policies.

July 2nd, 2013: Maria Luis Albuquerque is sworn in as Gaspar’s replacement at the helm of the Portuguese finance ministry. Paulo Portas resigns from the government in protest against the replacement which he finds to close to the outgoing minister and his austerity policies, which prime minister Pedro Passos Coelhoes rejects. Negotiations between the two governmental parties follow.

July 4th, 2013: ECB announces forward guindance.

July 6th, 2013: Passos Coelhos offers Paulo Portas to become deputy-prime minister for economic coordination, which he accepts, seemingly solving the crisis.

July 10th, 2013: Portuguese President Cavaco Silva rejects governmental bargain and demands the formation of a government of national unity including socialists.

July 23rd, 2013: Following consultations between all major parties no grand coalition is feasible. The Portuguese President is forced to accept the previous bargain struck on July 6th between the previous government’s coalition parties.

November 21st, 2013: Ukrainian President announces his intention not to sign the Association Agreement with the EU and starts talks with Russia, ostensibly due to EU demands for the release of Yulia Timoshenko.

November 27th, 2013: Italian Senate votes to expel Berlusconi.

December 3rd, 2013: Portugal conducts a bond exchange with the purpose of extending the average maturity of its outstanding debt.

December 17th, 2013:Russia agrees to bailout Ukraine to the tune of USD15bn in government bonds to maintain Ukrainian forex reserves, in exchange for a free trade agreement.

Ukrainian forex reserves and exch rate

December 18th, 2013: US Federal Reserve System announces it will begin tapering QE asset purchases by USD10bn (USD5bn less for both Treasuries and MBSs).

2014

January 2nd, 2013: Chinese Local authorities are allowed to rollover around 70% of their USD3tn stock of debt in order to avoid default. The IMF is concerned enough to issue to issue its own report on the issue.

January 7th, 2014: Ireland issues EUR3.75bn in 10yr syndicated bonds.

February 11th, 2014: Portugal issues EUR3bn in 10yr syndicated bonds.

February 22nd, 2014: Protests in Kiev escalate to a point where Yanukovich flees the country.

March 10th, 2014: Ireland announces it will resume bond auctions, ending its absence from this segment since its 2010 bailout.

March 13th, 2014:

March 31st, 2014: Russia demands autonomy for ethnically Russian easter regions of Ukraine in order to find diplomatic solution to Crimean Crisis.

April 3rd, 2014: ECB’s Mario Draghi announces that the ECB is likely to engage in QE if inflation remains subdued.

EZ HICP inflation 04.04.2014

 

April 10th, 2014: Greece returns to international financial markets with a €5bn 3yr fixed rate bond at 310bps over mid-swaps equivalent to 334.3bps over the equivalent maturity German government bond thanks to overwhelming international demand that totaled €20bn.

6 Responses to Chronology of Euro-Zone Crisis

  1. Alex says:

    This chronology is great. You should keep updating it!

    • fmpdea says:

      Thank you! I’m glad you enjoyed it. I will try to keep it updated.
      Have you checked around the rest of the website? You might find that the blogs, news and data sections are also quite useful.
      All the best!

  2. Alex says:

    It’s really useful. There is a lot of interesting content. Keep it up :-)

  3. emre.elmadag@gmail.com says:

    Extremely useful . Thank you for bringing the pieces together.

  4. Mai Le says:

    It’s really great and especially helpful for my assignment. Thanks :d

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